By Kazunobu Matsushita, Hirohide Toyama, Naoto Tonouchi, Akiko Okamoto-Kainuma
This ebook offers all features of acetic acid micro organism (AAB) and gives the longer term goals and instructions of AAB study. It summarizes the special physiological houses of AAB and the new growth on AAB learn, specially within the following 5 components: 1) Molecular phylogeny and genome learn of AAB; 2) Ecological positive aspects of AAB: interplay with crops, usual fermentation platforms, and bugs; three) Physiological gains and residing ideas of AAB, together with quick oxidation skill, acid resistance, biofilm formation, and genetic instability; four) Molecular mechanisms of numerous oxidative fermentations similar to acetate fermentation, sorbose fermentation, and ketogluconate fermentation; five) fresh biotechnological points of AAB: biocatalysts, biosensors, biocellulose, and different worthwhile polysaccharides.
AAB examine has a protracted historical past because the discovery of AAB by means of Louis Pasteur and the id of AAB by way of Martinus Beijerinck within the 19th century. within the 20th century, uncomplicated study at the taxonomic examine of AAB and on biochemical learn for the original oxidative reactions of AAB had stepped forward in addition to the commercial program of AAB not just in vinegar fermentation but additionally within the bioconversion technique for important chemical or pharmaceutical items. coming into the twenty-first century, AAB learn has increased extra, and additional growth is predicted to be visible in all fields of AAB: class and ecology, body structure and biochemistry, genetics, and biotechnology of vinegar fermentation and different oxidative fermentations. Far-reaching improvement within the final decade makes those micro organism extra invaluable for varied commercial makes use of. Readers can receive precious and complete info that is intriguing in elements of easy technology and gives tricks for the higher program of those micro organism to varied different types of functional creation situations as well.
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Additional info for Acetic Acid Bacteria: Ecology and Physiology
Catalase positive and oxidase negative. Acetic acid is hardly produced from ethanol. Acetate and lactate are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, but the activity of the former is weak. Grows on glutamate agar but weakly on mannitol agar. Dihydroxyacetone is not produced from glycerol. Acid is produced from D-glucose or ethanol and from glycerol weakly. Methanol can be used as a sole source of carbon. Ammoniac nitrogen is assimilated on glucose. A high concentration of D-glucose, for example, 5 % D-glucose (w/v), is preferable for growth.
2014). 1 Endobacter medicaginis Ramı´rez-Bahena, Teijedor, Martı´n, Vela´zquez and Peix 2013 For the characteristics of the species, refer to Ramı´rez-Bahena (2013). The type strain is M1MS02T (¼ CECT 8088T ¼ LMG 26838T), isolated from a surface-sterilized nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Spain. 3 mol%. bac’ter. N. L. masc. n. Nguyenius, Nguyen, the name of a famous Vietnamese microbiologist; N. L. masc. n. bacter, rod; N. L. masc. n. Nguyenibacter, a rod, which is named after Professor Dung Lan Nguyen, Vietnam, who contributed to the study of microorganisms, especially of strains isolated in Vietnam.
In the beginning, the distribution of the Asaia strains was supposed to be restricted only to the tropical zone, that is, in Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia (Yamada and Yukphan 2008). However, the Asaia strains were isolated in the temperate zone, in Japan (Suzuki et al. 2010). 35 % acetic acid (v/w). 5 μm, and motile with peritrichous flagella. Colonies are smooth, entire, raised, shiny, and light brown, pink, to dark pinkish on glucose/peptone/yeast extract agar. Aerobic. Catalase positive and oxidase negative.
Acetic Acid Bacteria: Ecology and Physiology by Kazunobu Matsushita, Hirohide Toyama, Naoto Tonouchi, Akiko Okamoto-Kainuma