By John Krige
In 1945, the USA used to be not just the most powerful fiscal and army energy on this planet; it used to be additionally the world's chief in technology and expertise. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technological know-how in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar medical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the United States. They mobilized political and fiscal aid to advertise not only America's medical and technological agendas in Western Europe yet its chilly struggle political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing at the paintings of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this try at clinical dominance by means of the usa might be visible as a sort of "consensual hegemony," related to the collaboration of influential neighborhood elites who shared American values. He makes use of this concept to investigate a chain of case experiences that describe how the united states management, senior officials within the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO technological know-how Committee, and influential participants of the medical establishment--notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia college and Vannevar Bush of MIT--tried to Americanize medical practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations learn. He information U.S. help for associations together with CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif close to Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's learn indicates how consensual hegemony in technology not just served the pursuits of postwar eu reconstruction yet grew to become otherwise of conserving American management and "making the realm secure for democracy."
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In 1945, the U.S. was once not just the most powerful financial and army strength on this planet; it used to be additionally the world's chief in technology and know-how. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of technology in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures within the usa to version postwar clinical practices and associations in Western Europe on these in the United States.
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First, there was the need to enforce the demilitarization and the dismantlement of the German war industry, from which the recovered machinery and plant was seized by the occupying powers as war reparations. Second, there was a need for the denazification and democratization of the population to ensure that no demagogue could ever again drag his people into armed conflict. The challenge was to build an economy that allowed for a decent standard of living for the population without encouraging nostalgia for German economic and military domination.
Scientific instrument manufacturers were being encouraged by the government to produce for export. Policies were being put in place to increase the numbers, and to make better use, of scientists and engineers, and the government had substantially increased its support for research in universities. 5 million, 86 percent of it for defense and industrial research. The London office of the ONR concluded that “the government interest in the financial support of research in Great Britain is such that any external financial support may be redundant.
Army Major General L. L. ”71 The long-term benefits to be derived from basic science were not priorities for those responsible for implementing the Marshall Plan. 73 Another possible bureaucratic home for the program inside the State Department was the Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation. 75 These efforts to support the rehabilitation of European science under the auspices of the Marshall Plan had two important consequences. First, they led the State Department to accept that science had become a significant component of foreign policy and that it needed to provide a rationale, formulate guidelines, and establish procedures for supporting science abroad.
American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe by John Krige
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